Crew Resource Management
Aviation and the successful completion of any flight depends upon continual Risk Assessment and competent Management – the concept on which Deal Alliance bases its value. Formal and regular facilitative courses under the title Crew Resource Management is, in our opinion an essential component of a pilot’s training.
CRM has evolved from the first comprehensive program initiated by United Airlines in 1981. In this era, CRM, known as the first generation and called Cockpit Resource Management, placed the focus on the psychology testing of crew, interpersonal skills and leadership concepts. It was heavily criticized by pilots and referred to as “charm school” , the aim of which was to “manipulate personalities.”
Second Generation CRM after NASA held another workshop for the industry, saw the emergence of emphasis on a modular approach in which concepts such as teamwork, stress management and situational awareness were the focus to prevent an error chain that could result in a catastrophe. Second Generation CRM, known as Crew Resource Management had better participant acceptance, but criticisms of irrelevant jargon and “psycho babble” still abounded, leading to the third generation CRM.
Third Generation CRM developed programmes that were more integrated, not only with technical training, but with also with other groups involved in the success of a safe flight, such as dispatchers, cabin crew and maintenance personnel. Human Factors and automation became a focus, but it was felt that less and less emphasis was now being placed on the human error aspect and how to reduce it.
Fourth Generation CRM attempted to make CRM an integral part of all flight training and companies were encouraged to bring CRM into each aspect of training, specific to a particular operation. Specific behaviors were added to an airlines checklist with the intention that the basics of CRM are observed in all normal and abnormal situations.
Fifth Generation CRM saw Mr James Reason, influencing the justification for CRM to be “error management”. It was now understood that error is inevitable and that it needs to be recognized, trapped and if allowed to occur, the consequences of the error must be mitigated. Incident reporting was encouraged and a climate of non punitive attitude was encouraged. This proved to be a resounding success.
The Sixth Generation CRM has built upon the fifth generation principles of Error management, but identifying the threats to safety that arise form the work environment as a whole. We call this Threat and Error Management and Deal Alliance refers to this concept in all training undertaken by the Organisation, and we advocate for all areas of aviation from theoretical to practical training and operation RISK must be managed.
Our CRM Refresher courses are held twice a month on a Friday, unless this day coincides with a public holiday.
“Human beings by changing the inner attitudes of their minds, can change the outer aspects of their lives”
Duration: Initial 2 days. Refresher: 1 day.